• 16Mar

    jatropha AFEXProf. Bruce Dale of Michigan State University patented a pre-treatment process called AFEX (Ammonia Fiber Expansion). AFEX can trim down the cost of fermenting cellulosic biomass to ethanol by reducing the processing procedures and eradicating the need to add supplements to aid the fermentation.

    AFEX pretreatment process utilizes ammonia to make the separation of cellulose and hemicellulose in plants 75% more efficient. The cellulose in plants, once extracted and broken down into sugars, can be transformed into biofuel.

    When a cellulosic material is treated with AFEX, it doesn’t need any washing or detoxification. This allows ethanol to be produced from cellulose without added supplements or procedures to aid the fermentation.

    The AFEX process is functioning under moderately mild condition. The biomass is heated at 100 degrees Centigrade with concentrated ammonia. Brisk pressure release aids the process. As a result, 99% of the ammonia is retrieved and recycled. This process decrystallizes cellulose, depolymerizes hemicellulose and remove lignin from it. AFEX decreases breaking down of the sugar in the biomass.

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